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Three different paragraphs to grab my readers attention

1; Declarative opening. 

School, the act of learning, is a necessity of life. Schools themselves aren’t necessary but learning is. It doesn’t matter if you are homeschooled, do online, or go to a public school, learning is something you must have  in life. Doing school, the act of learning anyway, is how we will progress in life. Schooling is necessary because without it we would be nothing. 

2; Interrogative opening. 

What would happen without school? Who or what would we be without the process of learning? How does the act of learning, of doing school, from home, online, or public, affect us?  Those are important questions. What are the answers? Well let me tell you……

3; Imaginative opening. 

What if there was no way to learn? No schooling system, no way to teach kids and young adults about life, mathematics, science, history, literature? Imagine a life without knowledge of anything, being as questionable and uneducated as a babe. That’s what life would be like without education and schooling, does it sound worthwhile? 

 

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The Korean War

The Korean war is, for me, something interesting to learn and talk about. Most people know that Korea is separated by two halves, North and South. But do you know what led up to this separation? Do you know how opposite the two halves are? Let me tell you a little story about Korea’s history. 

Before we jump right into the Korean war, let me tell you about the U.N. The U.N. (United Nations) was formed after WWII and played an important role in the Korean war. The U.N. is an intergovernmental organization established on October 24 1945 to promote international co-operation. The U.N. replaced the ineffective League of Nations, and was formed to prevent future world wars. 

Back to Korea; Korea had been under Japanese control until after WWII when it was liberated by the Allied forces, so when it was liberated, it had been under control by someone else for so long there was no government to restore. As one of the first decisions of the U.N. Korea was divided temporarily so that the country could be stabilized and reunited. During this time the Soviets had been secretly funding North Korea, not making it public for fear of antagonizing the U.S. 

Another note to make is that at this time the Soviets and U.S. were not on good terms with each other, which will explain a few things as I get farther into the history of the war. 

The two parts of Korea both came up with two totally different governmental ideas, North became a Communist country and South became Democratic. This difference came to a head in 1950 when North Korea, who was supported by China and the Soviets, invaded South Korea, supported by the U.N.,  to unite the country. As the strongest country in the U.N., the U.S. was the main supporter of South Korea. 

Three months into the war North Korea had pushed South Korea into a tiny corner of land called Pusan. South Korea was very close to losing the war, until U.S. general, Douglas McArthur, had an amazing idea to save them. McArthur orchestrated an amazing invasion that cut off North Korea’s supplies and resulted in an unbelievable reversal of the battle lines. Three months after the invasion South Korea had control over most of North Korea, until the Chinese came and after several months of back and forth fighting, the battlefront settled back to the original border line. 

The next two years of the war saw no real change in this battle line, as most of the fighting was done in the air. The aircraft “dogfights” over Korea were the first ever and were important strategically. The Germans were the ones that sent all the jets and most of the pilots to North Korea, while the U.S. sent the jets and pilots to South Korea. The two countries didn’t want to call an all-out war on each other, but gladly fought each other in support of Korea. The rest of the war were small skirmishes and ended with an armistice in July 1953. 

What I find most interesting about the Korean War is that it ended with just an armistice, not a peace treaty, which means that the war never really ended, it had just been at a stand-still for years. The two sides are now completely different, South Korea is one of the most advanced industrialized nations, while North Korea is one of the most shut off, closed down, and backward nations in the world.

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Industrial Age of America

The Industrial Age of America is usually given the nickname, the Industrial Revolution. 

This era or age, began in 1807 when the very first steamboat voyage was completed and successful. So for a long time, many years, steamboat was the fastest way to travel, if you wanted to get somewhere that was very far for you to ride in a wagon or cart, or a horse, really anything that would be considered “on foot”, you would buy a ticket and ride on a steamboat to get there faster. 

But all that changed in the year 1869 when the railroads came around. The railroads were way faster than steamboats, sometimes not even in actual speed, how fast the machine would run, but in how fast they could get you to your destination. Steamboats could only travel on water, so while they were fast, the voyages took way longer than a train would. Trains were able to cut across land and not have to make detours if there wasn’t water in ‘that’ spot. 

So when trains came around they blew everything else out of the park. They were not only faster, but also a lot more efficient in traveling long distances. 

Cornelius Vanderbilt lived during this ‘revolution’ and was a very important man during this time. He was a self-made millionaire and most powerful person of his day. His story is a great example of “rags to riches”. 

The reason he was so rich and successful was because he owned the biggest (as of then) steamboat shipping company. And he was doing great until trains came around. Taking a ‘leap of faith’ or making a rash decision he sold off his steamboats and went into the railroad industry. 

Vanderbilt was an amazing man, but like all of us had good and bad character traits. Some of his good traits were these; hard worker, diligent, and he was good at planning and calculating risk. But even with these he still had a few bad traits as well, the biggest one being this; because of his intense desire to be most powerful businessmen resulted in greed and he often treated both his employees and competitors very roughly.

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Immigration to America

You must be thinking, “Why were there so many immigrants to America?” Well let me answer that question for you. The reason and causes of the influx of immigrants to America in the late 1800’s was because America was the fastest growing economically and attracted many new immigrants, whether for economic or political, or religious reasons, these immigrants flocked to America for a better life. 

Ellis Island had a big part in the history of immigration, so let’s look at that next.               A small island in New York harbor was purchased from NY state by the federal government in 1808 just before the war of 1812, and a small fort was erected on the island. But in 1890 this island became the main station for immigrants and buildings replaced the war fort. However, in the 1900’s the island was closed due to traffic, or lack thereof, because the U.S. was making it harder for immigrants to gain access into America. This caused Ellis Island to cease being an immigration office.

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The American Red Cross and the Tuskegee Institute

The American red cross is a humanitarian organization that extends help when in a disaster, as well as teaches classes on self preparedness. 

The red cross was founded by Clara Barton on May, 21 1881. 

So who was Clara Barton? Clara Barton was the first woman of her time to have a position and pay comparable to that of a mans. She was also the first woman to hold a government job in the U.S. She served in the Civil war as a supplies distributor and later became a nurse, which gave her the nickname, “Angel of the Battlefield”. 

Some of the purposes of the Cross are, to aid in domestic disaster relief, community service for the needy, communication between military members and family, and the collection, processing, and distribution of blood,  as well as help with international relief. 

They also have set up educational programs on health, and development programs. 

The Tuskegee Institute was the first school for colored teachers. It was set up to  educate and teach black men and women to become teachers. It was the dream of Lewis Adams, an ex-slave who educated himself and a former slave owner, George Cambell. But later instead of just being a school teaching just adults it became a college for black adults and teenagers alike. 

Booker T. Washington was the first ever principle of the Tuskegee Institute at the age of 25 in 1881.

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Generals in the Civil War

“Stonewall” Jackson, Robert E. Lee; Ulysses S. Grant, William T. Sherman. 

In this essay I am going to talk about four different men that are well known in history. All of these men served in the Civil War, but two of them are from the Confederates side and the other two are from the Union side. 

Confederates;

“Stonewall” Jackson or Thomas Jackson was a general in the Civil War on the Confederate side of the war and is the best known general after Robert E. Lee. Jackson got the nickname “Stonewall” from what he did in the first battle of Bull Run (also known as Manassas) in July 1861. During that battle he led his men head on into a gap on the line of a determined Union attack. Jackson was a skilled military tactician and served as a general under Lee. He led troops at Manassas, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. Jackson was killed at the battle of Chancellorsville after being accidentally shot by another Confederate soldier. Jackson was a Christian and actually died on the Sabbath day (which was his dying wish) May 10, 1863, with these last words “Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees.” 

Robert E. Lee was the commander of the Confederate states army during the Civil War. He is the best known general/ commander on the Confederates side. He commanded the Army of Northern Virginia in the Civil War from 1862 until their surrender in 1865. After their army surrendered at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, the defeated Confederates returned to their homes to face an uncertain future. There, Lee enjoyed life in the country and considered buying land and living out his remaining years as a farmer. 

Union; 

Ulysses S. Grant was the commanding general for the Union Army in the American Civil War. Grant is best known for leading the Union states into victory over the Confederates during the war. After the war, Grant served as President for two terms.  He was the eighteenth president of the U.S. 

William T. Sherman was a general for the Union side of the American Civil War. He was a general in the war as well as major architect of modern warfare. He led the Union forces through crushing campaigns through the South, marching through Georgia and the Carolina’s.  Sherman died from pneumonia on February 14 1891. 

 

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Reconstruction

The Reconstruction era was the period after the American Civil War from 1865 to 1877, during which the United States grappled with the challenges of getting the Southern states back into the Union that had seceded and determining the legal status of African Americans. One of the ways they accomplished this was through the Reconstruction Acts. 

There are two amendments that make up the Reconstruction Acts. 

1; The Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868 and provided former slaves with citizenship. 

2; The Fifteenth Act was passed in 1870 and granted black men the ability to vote. 

The Ku Klux Klan, or KKK, was a group put together as a reaction to the Reconstruction Acts. They didn’t like the idea of black men and women being equalized to them and believed that white people were above them. The members of this club acted as vigilantes and supported their beliefs with threats and violence. 

Both the Reconstruction and KKK approaches to social change were wrong because they both used force and violence which is never the way to go.  Even the Reconstruction was good (because all men and women are equal no matter their race) the way they went about enforcing the Reconstruction Acts with force and violence was not ok or right.

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Swallowtail Butterflies

Swallowtail Butterflies 

All species of butterflies have been symbolized as transformation because of the life cycle they go through. {caterpillar; cocoon/ chrysalis; beautiful butterfly} However in some cultures they are the symbol of death and dying because of the chrysalis or cocoon stage of their lives. All types and species of butterflies are beautiful, but I chose one specific species of butterfly to write about in this essay. I decided to write this report on the Swallowtail butterflies because I think that they are the most beautiful of all the butterflies. 

The majority of Swallowtail butterflies species live in Southeast Asia, only 12 species are found in Europe and only one species, Papilio machaon, are found in the British Isles. 

Swallowtail  butterflies are large colorful butterflies in the Papilionidae family and include over 550 species. Though most of them live in tropical areas, members of this family live on every continent, except Antarctica. The Papilioniade family includes the largest types of butterflies in the world. 

The Swallowtail butterflies have many distinctive characteristics  that make them easier to spot if you know what those characteristics are. One of these characteristics is the tail-like extensions of the hind-wings, though many of them are tailless. The colour patterns vary but the most usual colors  have yellow, orange, red, green, or blue markings on an iridescent black, blue, or green background. 

One type of swallowtail, the Black swallowtail is a very humble butterfly, it is mainly black with only little markings. Because they are so vulnerable and have no way to defend themselves against their predators, Black swallowtails will imitate the Pipevine swallowtail to protect themselves. The reason this defense works is because the Pipevine swallowtail is very poisonous. Both as a caterpillar and adult butterfly, the Pipevine swallowtail is very poisonous. The reason they are so poisonous is because as a caterpillar they eat the poisonous plant Aristolochia. 

Butterflies are beautiful animals, and even though they are small they serve a purpose in the circle of life. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swallowtail_butterfly

https://www.google.com/search?q=special+characteristics+of+the+swallowtail+butterfly%5C&rlz=1CAJCUZ_enUS881&oq=special+characteristics+of+the+swallowtail+butterfly%5C&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l4.13902j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

https://www.google.com/search?q=where+in+the+world+do+swallowtail+butterflies+live+in%3F&rlz=1CAJCUZ_enUS881&oq=where+in+the+world+do+swallowtail+butterflies+live+in%3F&aqs=chrome..69i57.20990j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

https://www.google.com/search?q=adaptations+of+swallowtail+butterflies&rlz=1CAJCUZ_enUS881&sxsrf=ALeKk0107AUpLGPOsYXME8t7sh9pH3z7kg:1585858111143&tbm=isch&source=iu&ictx=1&fir=sYpm7LZQLhlOLM%253A%252CBclF7f6UduXJVM%252C_&vet=1&usg=AI4_-kRuEQUmQS1IQ3P6a9W_h50k4aEoGw&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjinYPrxcroAhUJHs0KHccbAi0Q_h0wAnoECAYQCA#imgrc=sYpm7LZQLhlOLM:

https://www.google.com/search?q=pipevine+swallowtail+are+they+poisonous%3F%3F&rlz=1CAJCUZ_enUS881&sxsrf=ALeKk00HmVGELrx6TvcLVh7xQolVyeaGLQ:1585858254860&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi9lsevxsroAhWIXM0KHTe9BV0Q_AUoAXoECAsQAw&biw=1366&bih=636

           

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The Civil War

The American Civil war was a war between the Union States and the Confederate States. The Confederate states were the states in the South. in the year 1860 the southern states seceded from the union and became the Confederate states, they wanted to form their own Country but the North didn’t want that to happen, so they started a war. 

The American Civil war started April 12 1861 and ended April 9 1865. There were about 10,500 battle engagements, and other military actions including nearly 50 major battles and about 100 others that had major significance. Here is a list of the names and wikipedia link for a few battles in chronological order. Battle of Bull Run – Wikipedia page Battle of Fort Henry – Wikipedia page Battle of Fort Donelson – Wikipedia page

Battle of Shiloh – Wikipedia page Second Battle of Bull Run – Wikipedia page Battle of Antietam – Wikipedia page Battle of Fredericksburg – Wikipedia page   Battle of Chancellorsville – Wikipedia page Battle of Gettysburg – Wikipedia page Battle of Vicksburg – Wikipedia page Battle of Chickamauga – Wikipedia page Battle of Cold Harbor – Wikipedia page Battle of Atlanta – Wikipedia page Battle of Shenandoah Valley – Wikipedia page Siege of Petersburg – Wikipedia page  Battle of Appomattox Courthouse – Wikipedia page

Approximately 620,000 soldiers died in this battle two thirds of which died from disease. That’s more deaths than in both World Wars, Korea, and Vietnam combined. 

In my opinion the Civil war should not have happened. The South seceded because they were making more products and producing more profits than the North and so the president put heavier taxes on them, and they got sick of it. They seceded in the same way we did from the Brits, but if the South had became their own country then the North would not have been prosperous, which was why we fought this war to make the South stay.  We should have let them break off into their own country instead of having so many people die. 

 

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Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president as well as the president during the American Civil War.

Lincoln didn’t have what most people would call an “average” education. Instead of attending any schools or colleges Abraham Lincoln was self taught.

Lincoln was known for making amazing speeches. One of the most remembered is the “House Divided”. In this speech he talked mostly about the slavery disputes, and how they were dividing every body and that a house divided cannot stand. He knew that one side was going to have to come out on top. 

Lincoln’s position on slavery was neither here nor there. He didn’t express strong opinions on either side of the arguments. Like I said before, he didn’t pick sides he just knew that in end we either would go all pro slavery or all anti slavery. 

Lincoln’s primary goal as president was to reunite the splintering nation. He didn’t want everyone to be fighting all the time, he wanted people to be at peace with one another. 

Abraham Lincoln was shot in the head by John Wilkes Booth. He died on April 15 1865 and was buried in Springfield, Illinois.