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The Three Forms of Literature

nUMBER 1: a nOVEL

A novel is a long prose narrative that describes fictional characters and events, usually in the form of a sequential story.

 

Number 2: A short story

A short story makes use of a plot, resonance, and other dynamic components to a far greater degree than is typical of an anecdote, yet to a far lesser degree than a novel.

 

Number 3: A novella

Generally features fewer conflicts than a novel, but more complicated ones than a short story. Is usually longer than a short story, but shorter than a novel.

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St. Tomas Aquinas

St. Thomas  Aquinas

Thomas Aquinas was born in the year 1225. He came from a wealthy family of a count and countess. He had several brothers in the military. He himself did not go into the military instead he went to a university.  When he was nineteen he joined the Dominican order. His family disagreed with this decision and actually went as far as kidnapping him. For two years they were able to hold him “captive”. Finally his mother saw that she could not change his mind so she helped him slip through an open window. He rejoined  the Dominican order and became a monk. 

His greatest accomplishment in life was the Summa Theologica which he never actually finished, he left it without completing it. He influenced the Catholic church by the way he thought, and he introduced logical reasoning to the church. He had been summoned by the Pope to attend a council. While on his way he was hit by a falling tree and became ill. He died several days later in 1274 reciting commentary on the Song of Solomon. The Greek philosopher Aristotle had the most influence in his life, and is who he looked to. Which technically means he read a lot of books.  

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo was born in 1254 probably in Venice, but we don’t know for certain. Marcos’ father and uncle were Venetian merchants and when a war broke out they were captured while out at sea. They were rescued by Kublai Khan’s men and taken to China. They stayed there for many years. Marco didn’t even know his father until he was fifteen years old! When his father and uncle were returning to China to give Kublai Khan some things he had asked them for, they took Marco with them. Kublai Khan ended up liking Marco so much that he made him part of his Privy Council in the year 1277. While in China Marco was able to travel widely throughout China and discovered new things! Marco had been in China for twenty-four years before he, his father, and his uncle finally came home. They had trouble speaking italian for a while and so it was hard at first to fit in. He married and had three daughters and even wrote a book about some of his adventures, called “The Travels of Marco Polo”. Some people loved it and he became an instant bestseller. Others nicknamed it “The Million Lies” because of the fantastical stories.

Marco influenced a man named Christopher Columbus with his book “The Travels of Marco Polo” which was on his ship in 1992.

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My own Robin Hood Tale!

One bright, sunny day, when Robin Hood and Little John were sitting under the trees in the beautiful Sherwood forest, there came a sudden cry, a warlike cry, from the east. Now as Robin heard this he stood up and said to Little John, “What do you think that was? It sounded like a cry of war, but it also sounded as if a girl had screamed.”

Then Little John said, “Yeah, it did sound a little high pitched, should we go check it out?” So Robin Hood and Little John got up and went to see who it was that had made that terrible cry. And as they were walking eastward, towards the place where they had heard the noise, a sudden snap was heard, and just as Robin Hood and Little John were looking about to see what it was, an arrow went whizzing by their heads, barely missing the bridge of Little John’s nose, who had been a little ahead Robin when the arrow was shot. After a few minutes Robin leapt to his feet to see who had shot the arrow. It was a young teenage girl! Robin, seeing the girl, said to her, “You have a great shot, why did you try to shoot me and my partner?” While he was saying this he had been walking slowly towards the girl. “What is your name, fair miss?” “My name,” She said, “is Magdalene.” Now when she had said this John and Robin could fully see her, and she was quite a weird sight to behold. She wasn’t wearing a dress but a shirt and pants, with a knife at her hip and a longbow across her shoulders along with a quiver of arrows, and short, boy like hair. Now Robin Hood and Little John were quite surprised at this and asked her why she wore such things. She told them the sad story of how her mother and father had died when she was young and so she went to live with her mother’s sister, now her mother’s sister had only sons and didn’t know how to raise a girl, so she was brought up as a boy, wearing boy clothes, doing boy chores, and learning how to use weapons such as boys would. She continued and told them of how she had been kicked out of the house once she turned sixteen to live on her own.

“Which is exactly what I’m doing right now. I’m hunting and you’re in my way.” With that she stomped off and was never seen again. Now when Little John and Robin Hood went back to Sherwood forest that evening they told all the band about this strange girl, and how she had run off. The band then made a jest of this (as they always do of random things) and said that the one to find this girl and bring her to dine with them, would get to drink out of the golden gauntlet they had hidden away with their treasures.

For days they searched but never were able to find the girl. Until three weeks after her first, and thought to be last, showing, was she found, with an old woman. Now just as they (Will Scarlet, Robin Hood, and Little John) were about to walk up and introduce themselves, there was a big scream, a clash of steel, and a big dust cloud. When the dust finally settled down again, and the men were able to see once again upon where the two women had been, they saw the entire little campsite thrown about, and an arrow sticking straight through a foxes corpse as it lay dead. Now Little John, Robin Hood, and Will Scarlet, all set out at once to tell the news to the band.

Three more times was Magdalene spotted but every time, there was a large dust cloud and a dead animal with an arrow shot between the eyes. After this they began to think of her as the goddess, McZelda, who was cursed at a young age and was hunted down by wild beast’s untill she was to be killed.  Never again after the third and final time Magdalene was seen did she ever appear or any other sign show that she was alive again. But after a few months word came about to the merry band of Sherwood forest, that Magdalene had died, fighting against a bear who had tried to kill her aunt and uncle while on a horse ride thru the woods near their house.

So, was it true that she had been this goddess in disguise? Or was she just a poor, unfortunate girl? What do you think?

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Jesus Christ

Jesus Christ is the most important person that was ever born. I am going to summarize his life in this essay.

His life began when Mary, a Jewish virgin, was visited by an angel. He told her that she would be the one to give birth to the son of God. Mary and her betrothed husband, Joseph, traveled to Bethlehem because of the casus. Jesus was born in a manger in Bethlehem. We know he had at least four brothers. When he was twelve he was in the temple preaching to the Jewish priests!

We know he grew up as a carpenter’s son, Joseph,  and became good in structure. His father died when he was young.

When Jesus was thirty he began to preach about the gospel. He picked twelve men to be his disciples.

After many months of teaching, maybe years, he was crucified. He was laid in a tomb. During his teachings he had said that he would resurrect himself, so there was a guard placed in front of his tomb so that his disciples wouldn’t steal his body and say it was resurrected. Jesus was dead for three days. On the third morning (Easter Sunday) he rose from the dead! He began to teach for a while longer until he went back to heaven.

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Flavian Dynasty

The Flavian dynasty was started by a Roman soldier named Vespasian. He was at war when the Roman Senate called upon him to come back to Rome and restore order. They called upon Vespasian because he was head of the army at the time.

Originally Vespasian’s family was part of a class of Romans named the Equestrian class. But because of their military accomplishments they were able to move up the line socially.

In 70 AD, Jerusalem was destroyed by Titus, Vespasians son. The war against Jerusalem had been started by Vespasian himself, but he had to return to Rome to become next emperor.

When Vespasian died, Titus became king, or emperor. This was very important and unique because this was the first time in Roman history that a biological son actually took over the power as emperor after his father, and was actually successful.

Titus reigned for about 2-3 years before he died of a massive fever.

Domitian was the next and final Flavian emperor. He was Titus’ brother and he reigned for about 15  years, from 69-96 AD.  He was actually assassinated by the senate because they thought he was a tyrant.

That is the beginning and end of the Flavian dynasty.

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Pompeii

During the reign of Titus (a Roman emperor), in 79 AD the volcano erupted and covered Pompeii. This was the largest recorded eruption in this part of Europe and killed thousands of people. For years the city lay unexcavated, but is now uncovered and lays as an archeological site.

History of Pompeii

The city was founded near modern-day Naples, by the Oscans but was finally conquered as a Roman city in 80 BC. The city held about 20 thousand people and had a amphitheater, gymnasium, and many other luxuries. It was a vacation spot for the richer people of Rome. It was known for its immoral, and debauched cultur.

Volcano eruption

Mt. Vesuvis erupted on Augest 24, 79 AD. The heat from the volcano (482 F) could instantly kill anything within six miles of the mountain.

An eyewitness account

We have an eyewitness account by Pliny the Younger. This is remembered as the first news reporting situation, as he wrote this historical event down for later people to know what truly happened. He was on a boat in the Bay of Naples when the eruption happened, therefore had a great view of this event. The volcanic ash cloud covered the surrounding cities for three whole days, making it as dark as night during that period. Pompeii was buried 13 feet deep, not from the ground, but 13 feet deep above the highest buildings. The eruption blew the top off the mountain and caused a mud flow that destroyed the nearby city, Herculaneum. These two cities were never ever able to be rebuilt and inhabitable, so the people of Rome actually forgot about them. They were forgotten until we found and recovered them.

Conclusion

The artifacts and discoveries made from Pompeii have helped us understand more about Romans, their culture and their way of life. The lifestyle of the Romans straight down to their clothes, food, and houses were well preserved during the aftermath of the eruption.

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If I was ship wrecked and trapped on an island

If I was stuck on an island and I had to make my own tools and get my own supplies I would probably last about a week. I’m going to pretend that the island I got stuck on had a bunch of coconut trees, a dense forest, and wild animals. The first thing I would do is try to salvage anything I could from my wrecked ship. This would contain maybe some silverware, cloth, maybe full sets of clothing, some long-lasting food, and anything I could find that is healthy to drink. I would then make myself a little hut. This would be a simple task at first and then I would make it better the longer I lived and lasted on the island.

Making my ‘hut’

I’d first find three large logs, or sticks, and some tall grass. Assume I got some cloth, a needle, and some string from my ship. I would sew up the cloth together the best I could making about two layers, to keep out the rain. Then with the long pieces of grass, I’d wind them together and tie off the ends. I would then set up one log standing straight up and another on top. With my grass rope I would tightly tie them together making them as stable as I could. I’d then lay them down gently on their sides and dig a hole big and deep enough for the bottom log to fit inside. Then I would stick it inside of the hole and push the dirt, or sand, back in and pack it tightly around the log. It would then look something like a cross. Then I would lay the cloth over it and make a roof. I’d roll the two other logs evenly as I can, on the sides of the pole. I’d wrap the cloth underneath  the logs, and there you have a simple hut, or tent.

Getting food

To get food I would make more rope out of the tall grass. But this time I’d make it so that the rope was thin, so it would be harder to see, but still strong. I’d grab two large sticks and then go into the forest. I’d first make a ladder out of two logs, some grass rope, and some stable sticks. I then would dig a deep and wide hole. Let’s pretend that I used my hands and some rocks and sticks to dig this. Then with the two sticks and my thinner grass rope I’d pound the sticks into the ground with a rock, and tie the ends of the grass rope around them. This would make a trip wire. Which I would put right in front  of the pit. That way  when an animal trips on my wire it falls into the pit and is stuck.

Making knifes out of wood

To make a knife out of wood for cutting meat and protection is really simple. I’d get a good size stick and a sharp rock. I’d scrape the rock against my stick and make it smooth and sharp at the tip. To make it more sanitary for cutting my food, wash it. I’d do this by using some of the clean water I got from my ship, and some soap, also from the ship. I’d clean it as well as I could. Now for the handle, I’d make a bunch of grass rope and wrap it tightly around the bottom half of my knife. I’d do the same but to bigger sticks for spears and sharp poles. I could use these for fishing.

That’s what I would do at the start to try and survive on an island.

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Roman Houses

The poorest people in Rome lived in small apartment rooms in different buildings around the city. These rooms were usually crowded, small, dirty, and were not very well-built so there were small chances of collapse. The houses did not have any water or kitchens, and fires were not allowed to be used because the houses were built close together and they did not want any chances of a fire starting and burning down a whole block. Most cheap homes didn’t even come with bathrooms, and so the Romans would have to go to the public bath houses. These were very public and you had to pay a fee to get in. Most poor people had to use a bucket of water to clean themselves, and that’s all.

Only the Richest Romans could afford a town home. These were spacious and luxurious and vastly different from the small apartments. They included an atrium in the center and included several specific living areas.

So you see that being rich or poor mattered if you wanted to be comfortable.

 

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Octavian Augustus Caesar

Octavian was in the second triumvirate. A triumvirate was a group of three people who all helped rule Rome together. Well, Octavian wanted to rule Rome by himself, like an emperor. Antony was another member of the second triumvirate and he and Octavian made a deal that Octavian got to rule Rome and Antony got to rule Egypt. Well, Antony fell in love with Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen, and divorced his first wife to marry her.  His first wife happened to be Octavian’s sister and this a feud between Anthony and Octavian.

When Antony and Cleopatra tried to conquer Rome, Octavian crushed them in battle and he took over Egypt. After this there was a period of peace. This period of peace is known as the Pax Romana. When Octavian become king his name became Augustus. Rather than trying to rule over the people he worked with the Roman senate to improve Rome. He also reduced the size of the army to stop a coup from happening. Augustus encouraged cultural improvement and developments to be made during his time of peace. He built many palaces, temples, and other buildings in Rome. Augustus first set the standard of distributing free food, money, and entertainment to the people when they got restless.

He is known as a very good king, and during his reign the Roman Republic was forgotten.