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Octavian Augustus Caesar

Octavian was in the second triumvirate. A triumvirate was a group of three people who all helped rule Rome together. Well, Octavian wanted to rule Rome by himself, like an emperor. Antony was another member of the second triumvirate and he and Octavian made a deal that Octavian got to rule Rome and Antony got to rule Egypt. Well, Antony fell in love with Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen, and divorced his first wife to marry her.  His first wife happened to be Octavian’s sister and this a feud between Anthony and Octavian.

When Antony and Cleopatra tried to conquer Rome, Octavian crushed them in battle and he took over Egypt. After this there was a period of peace. This period of peace is known as the Pax Romana. When Octavian become king his name became Augustus. Rather than trying to rule over the people he worked with the Roman senate to improve Rome. He also reduced the size of the army to stop a coup from happening. Augustus encouraged cultural improvement and developments to be made during his time of peace. He built many palaces, temples, and other buildings in Rome. Augustus first set the standard of distributing free food, money, and entertainment to the people when they got restless.

He is known as a very good king, and during his reign the Roman Republic was forgotten.

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Where I Would Live and Why.

If I could pick where to live, I’d pick right where I am. I live in Sandy Utah. I love Utah because there is some very pretty and beautiful places and monuments, some lakes and ponds, and there’s a lot of temples here for my religion. I love the hot, warm, cool, and cold weather here. All of my family members also live in different parts of Utah. We can even drive to St. George! There are pretty trees here also. I love living in Utah and as of right now, don’t want to leave.

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Carthage

Carthage was found by a princess named Dido around the year 814 BC.  She was the daughter of King Tyre, but when he died and her brother became king she fled and started a new kingdom. The reason she fled was because her brother was ruthless, he even killed his uncle to become the next king when his father died, so Dido left because she feared that he might kill her.

Carthage is located on the coast of North Africa.

Carthage had many provisions and good things to trade. They especially had a lot of silver, tin, and copper.

Even though Carthage was a great trading place, they had many wars with other civilizations. The Greeks, Sicilians, and soon even the Romans were fighting against them.  They eventually had the Punic wars.

The Punic wars was a set of three wars that was with Carthage and Rome. There purpose was to decide who was going to be in control of the Mediterranean sea trade routs.  Carthage had a better navy, Rome had better land troops.

After these three wars Carthage had been ravaged. And soon was rebuilt as a Roman city by Julius Cesar and became a very important African and Roman trading post.

 

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Mr. Fogg

The topic for this essay was to write a one to two page essay on one of the characters from a previous book that I’ve read this semester.  I chose the character Phileas Fogg from Around the World in 80 days.

Fogg.

Mr. Fogg is a quiet and mysterious man who lives in London. He has a very strict schedule that always goes exactly right. In the beginning of the book he fires his servant because he brought his water 2 degrees off of what its supposed to be.

He makes a bet with his friends, or really men from his reformed club, that if he can go around the world in 80 days and come back by a certain day then he will get 20 thousand pounds (Which is what they called their money back then).

He sets out and goes around the world. He goes on many small adventures during his great journey around the world. Right before he leaves a bank is robbed. People begin to think it was him, and that’s why he was eager to take on this risky bet. He even gets arrested in part of the story! But they find out that the man really responsible for the robbery was already caught. He somehow gets mixed up and arrives a day early and wins the bet. In his great journey he saved a lady named Auoda who, after returning back to London, he marries. They are super happy together and that’s when the story ends.

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Greek Worldview On Their Myths and Stories.

The Greeks believed that their Gods were in control of the seasonal changes. So they made up different myths on how and why the seasons changed.

Greeks thoughts on how the Seasons changed.

The Greeks had many stories on how the seasons changed in their yearly process.  Here is one of those myths/stories.

One bright sunny morning in Mount Olympus, Demeter said goodbye to her daughter Persephone. “I’ll be back for supper.” she said. As goddess of harvest, she took care of all the plants in the world. The weather was always fine and there were harvests all year long.

Demeter had hidden Persephone from the gods so that no one would be able to marry her.

After her mother had gone, Persephone and her friends went to pick flowers. Trying to find the best daisies, Persephone wandered away from her friends and was soon on her own.

All of a sudden, Persephone heard a noise and looked up into the sky. She saw a chariot pulled by four black horses driven by Hades, the god of the underworld. Hades had fallen in love with Persephone but knew that Demeter would not allow him to marry her daughter.

Before Persephone could scream, Hades dragged her into his chariot and raced away. As they raced across the ground, a humungous cleft appeared on the ground. Hades drove straight down through it and the ground closed behind them. Hades and Persephone disappeared into the underworld.

When Demeter went home that evening, she called out to Persephone saying that she brought back some corn and that she was going to make some soup for dinner. When there was no reply, Demeter went around the house calling Persephone’s name. Then she realized that the house was empty. She decided to wait, thinking that Persephone was outside and had not yet returned. She waited until it was midnight, when she began to grow worried. For nine days and nine nights, Demeter searched and searched for her missing daughter, not even stopping to rest or eat.

Dressed in black instead of her usual bright and sunny dresses, Demeter went all over the country, searching for Persephone as an old woman.

Since she no longer took care of the crops, nothing grew anymore. The corn rotted in the fields no fruit ripened on the trees and the grass turned brown. There was nothing for cows, sheep and goats to eat and the people of the world were near to starving.

One day, Zeus called a meeting for all the gods and goddesses. “This is serious.” Zeus said in a thundering voice. “If we don’t persuade Demeter to look after the crops of the world, people will die.

A goddess, who  heard that Hades  captured Persephone said: “Hades must let Persephone leave the underworld, only then will Demeter save the earth.

Zeus called Hermes, messenger of the gods, to go to the underworld and ask Hades to let Persephone leave the underworld. Hermes flew off at once. Only gods and goddesses could go into the underworld, the home of the dead people and come out again.

“I will never let Persephone go.” growled Hades. “I love her and want to marry her.” “Please be reasonable Hades.” Hermes begged. “You know that Persephone doesn’t love you.”

“Fine.” roared Hades angrily, “I will let her go if she does not eat anything here. You know the rules. If she does then she must stay here forever.”

“That’s easy, lets just ask her.” said Hermes.

“I did not eat anything!” Persephone cried. “I haven’t even touched a single crumb of food!”

A misty ghost of a gardener was listening. “Oh yes you did” he said. “I saw you pick a pomegranate and eat it.”

“No,” cried Persephone. “I didn’t eat the whole thing, I was just so thirsty I just swallowed four seeds.”

“That’s enough!” roared Hades.

“Please Hades,” begged Hermes. “Let her go, a few seeds isn’t that much.”

“Fine then!” shouted Hades. “Persephone may be with Demeter for half of the year while she stays with me in the underworld.”

Hermes held Persephone’s hand and took her away from the underworld and back to Demeter. Demeter was so happy, that she turned back into herself and wore bright and sunny clothes again. She also made sure that everything in the world grew again. “Oh my darling daughter.” she had said when Persephone had arrived. “You have come back to me” “Yes, but I may only stay with you for half a year.” Persephone sobbed. “I’ll have to spend the rest in the underworld.” Demeter was sad but knew that she had to accept this.

All through the summer Demeter was happy and busy, but when Persephone had to go back to the underworld she was sad and it became autumn. Then the weather would turn cold and it will be winter. But when Persephone returned Demeter was happy and it would be spring again.

This is how the Greek’s explained the changes of seasons.

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Roman and Samnite wars

The Roman and Samnite wars was when there were three major battles  between the two people.

The first war was started when the Samnites went and invaded a nearby city to expand their territory. Well, the city happened to be on the border of Roman territory and so the cities people made a deal with Rome, if Rome would help push back the Samnites then they would become part of Rome. So Rome agreed and this started the first of the three Samnite and Roman wars. The weird thing was, that Rome and Samnite used to be allies, and now they’re fighting? Weird…   This war lasted only two years before the Samnites gave up and wanted peace. This peace only lasted for a little while.

The next war was started this time by the Romans. The Romans started this war when they decided to make their own small town and villages in Samnite territory. This is technically just asking for a war, maybe they wanted a war and were egging the Samnites on or, they were showing off in a way about how the Samnites lost the last war? We don’t exactly know.  But yet again, the Romans won this war as well.

Finally Samnites had had enough! They made allies with a people called, the Etruscans, and started another war! I mean come on! Another war again? Ancient history is to much for me…… But Romans ended up winning this war also. Face it, you can’t mess with Rome. Rome conquered the Samnites and Etruscans. The only parts of Italy Rome didn’t control now, was the extreme South and this region known as the Po valley. Maybe the people were fond of Kon Fu Panda?

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Roman Games

You have probably heard of the Roman Games. But just to refresh your memory (because a lot of people mistake them for the Greek Games) we’re going to tell you the differences between Roman and Greek Games. The Greek Games were religious ceremonies performed for the Gods. While the Roman Games were just for the sheer gladness to see human blood be spilled. (disgusting) There were a few different ways the Romans did their gladiator fights. If you were a man/woman who had done a bad dead like, steal or kill, instead of being exiled or executed, you would be put into the gladiator pit. You either had to hunt and kill a beast, or be the one hunted and killed. The other way was if you were a good respected person and good at war, you would be put in the ‘pit’ with a team and fight with another team of gladiators. Or you were put in with about twenty other people and it was an all for all.

There were also chariot races held in a different stadium where you had a cart, called a chariot, which was pulled by horses, and you raced with another person. These too were even dangerous because you could be pushed off your chariot and trampled, or they most likely would have swords. You see all in all everything in the Roman Games had something to do with the bloodshed of men.

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Kings of Rome

The first king of Rome that I’m going to talk about is Ancus Martius. He tried to lead the people in developing religious rituals. However, even though he wanted to make peace he was forced to fight the Latins who were invading Rome. So Ancus developed religious practices that could be done during war, which would turn out to be much more common in Rome. Ancus reigned for 24 years and according to the historian, Livy, was the best king Rome had ever seen.

The next king was Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. He was not from Rome but was an outsider from Tarquinii. After living in Rome for a while he became a good, just man. He became king in 616. Lucius developed entertainment in Rome. He was killed by the sons of Ancus, the previous king. His wife however, was able to keep this a secret and told the people that he was just injured. Servius was their adopted son and he gained favor over the people and became king. He was not chosen by the Senate, but gained favor by doing good justly deeds with the people. Servius was a slave boy before he was adopted, but had the bearing and character of a king.

The last king of Rome was named Lucius Superbus. He became king by killing Servius because he was the rightful heir. He was a cruel king. His son committed adultery with one of the prominent women, which led to the people kicking Lucius Superbus and his family out of Rome.

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My own Greek Myth

Once in the Greek city named Sicily, there was a beautiful girl. Her name was Amethyst. She had beautiful violet-purple eyes, and some said that there were stars in them. She had darker purple hair, and fair skin. When the Spartans and Athens came and fought in Sicily,  Amethyst was fifteen and she packed up a small bag and ran away.

Three years after Sparta and Athens left, Amethyst was eighteen. She had grown even more beautiful. Her eyes had gotten brighter and more ‘stars’ seamed to appear in them. Her hair silkier and smooth, and since she had lived in the mountains her skin had grown darker. There was one problem though, she was trapped in the mountain by a gargoyle. Gargoyles have pitch black eyes, that seem to see nothing, razor-sharp teeth that poke out of their mouths, long sharp spiky claws, each a foot long, and long scaly wings that stretch out about three yards, and their skin is stone. This gargoyle’s name was gtochlawsemltr, which means, Fast Killer in English. Amethyst was not scared for she was used to the beast of which had captured her. She spent her days trying to figure out a way to escape her prison.

Amethyst loved the beautiful flowers on the mountain and so longed to be able to buy some from the shops in the town at the bottom of the mountain. One day Amethyst came up with a plan to get the gargoyle to let her go down to the shops. Early in the morning she got her strength and courage and she went to the gargoyle. Fast Killer was sitting on his usual rock looking down at the people, and then sometimes looking at the sky above. “Oh, Fast Killer, may it be so that you would let me go down to the shops at the bottom of the mountain, of which we call home, and buy some of the lovely flowers?” Amethyst asked with all of her intents.  Fast Killer looked at her, and said, “Why does you wants to go down to the bottom of the mountain, wish you to escape?” Amethyst looked at Fast Killer with her starry gaze and said, “If you will just let me go down, I could grab the flowers and come back before sundown.” Fast Killer shook his head and said, “No! Never ever!” Amethyst wiped her face, because she was covered in slobber from Fast Killer’s mouth when he screamed.  Amethyst quickly ran off and pretended to cry.  She ignored  Fast Killer for the rest of the day. She refused to eat, and barely drank. She was starting to get sick and was very slim. Finally Fast Killer shouted for Amethyst to approach him. She was barely able to stand and fell down, making it so she had to crawl to him. Fast Killer said to Amethyst, “You may go down to the mountain, and stay in the small town for three days, once those three days are over you must come back, at once, and no wandering! Also you have to be in good shape, so you can’t go until you are well again!” Amethyst got better within two days of eating, drinking, and exercising.

She was half way down the mountain when night came. She traveled the rest of the way in the pitch black darkness. When she had finally gotten into the  town it was early in the morning.  She went straight to the inn and told them she would be staying for three days. When she looked in the mirror at what she looked like she was astonished! “Oh! What long and dirty hair I have! And my clothes need to be changed! I can not go around looking like this!” So Amethyst cut her hair down to her shoulders, bought a beautiful purple and gold dress, and got some earrings and rings. When she was finally pretty enough to go out with the other people, she was one of the most beautiful people in the world!

She explored the town, the shops, and then she went to where a crowd of people were. The crowd of people were admiring a handsome young man and his beautiful horse, the horse had wings! She was amazed at the beautiful horse and wished that it would come to her. “Oh, beautiful horse shalt though come unto me?” She whispered under her breath. In an instant the horse was flying down right towards her! She almost fell to the ground when it landed and his rider jumped off.  Amethyst  was impressed by the beautiful features of the horse. He even stepped up to her so that his beautiful eyes looked upon her. She stroked his soft face and his feathery wings with wonder. His rider suddenly stepped up to Amethyst and kissed her hand saying, “Fair lady what is thou name? I have never before seen a girl as fair as you!” Amethyst started blushing, but could not make herself  look away from the boys face. “Ah! My name is Amethyst, and you are the most handsome boy I have ever laid mine eyes upon!” Amethyst looked away and regretted saying this then remembered that this was the second day of her three-day adventure, and she hadn’t gotten any flowers. She rushed off towards the flower stand. She realized that the young man had followed her. She bought all the flowers she could afford and then walked off to get her stuff. She knew that she would have to be at the top of the mountain by tomorrow evening, or she would be punished. “Wait! Amethyst! Where art thou going?” Shouted the boy following her. Amethyst turned around to face him. “What is your name?” She asked realizing she had never asked his name. “My name, my fair lady, is Bellerophon.”  He looked into Amethysts eyes and opened his mouth in awe. “Your eyes, my fair Amethyst, they twinkle with stars! Oh! What a beautiful sight!” Bellerophon said to Amethyst still clutching her hand in his. “Look,” Amythest said, “I have to get to the top of that mountain before sundown tomorrow, and you are just getting in my way! Now let me go!” Amethyst had never before been mean to a young boy, especially when she thought him to be handsome. Bellerophon let go of her hand and whistled. In an instant Pegasus was at his side, and Bellerophon jumped on his back. “My fair Amethyst let me take you up to the mountain top on my fair Pegasus.” Bellerophon held his hand out to Amethyst and beckoned her to get on. Amethyst took his hand and they flew off to the mountain top.

Well Fast Killer had been watching and saw Amethyst flying on the back of Pegasus with Bellerophon, and he was mad, so mad that he got up and started flying with his long strong wings.  When Amethyst saw this she screamed and fainted falling off the back of Pegasus! Oh how fast Pegasus flew to save her life! In an instant she was on his back again. Bellerophon had drawn his sword and was trying to stab at Fast Killer. But Fast Killer’s wings were made of scales, and his body of stones! Amethyst was getting mad. Bellerophon was no match for Fast Killer and he was going to get ravaged.  Just then the sky got dark, as dark as Amethyst’s eyes, and the stars were twinkling as bright as ever. Suddenly the stars started to explode! And with each explosion part of Fast Killer would crumble away and when the stars were all gone, Fast Killer was dead, and the sky cleared up. In Amethysts eyes the stars were also gone. And she was starting to fade away into nothingness. Then suddenly the sky opened up and the gods took Amethyst with them! A year later Amethyst returned and she married Bellerophon. And they lived happily ever after.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

n the sky split open and Aphrodite picked up Amethyst and took her as her child. As it turned out, Amethyst was her child! And she had come to Earth to kill Fast Killer and save Pegasus and Bellerophon.

A year after Amethyst had gone home to live with the gods and goddesses, she came back down to earth and Amethyst and Bellerophon were married, and they are still going on adventures to this day.

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Peloponnesian Wars

When Athens and Sparta were fighting Persia, during the war Sparta said that they had had enough fighting and broke out of the war leaving Athens to fight the Persians alone. After that Sparta and Athens started fighting and having small arguments that made them both dislike each other, causing big tension between them. In the year 459 BC, a war finally broke out between the two largest city-states. Megara and Corinth started the fighting, which led to Athens breaking their peace treaty with  Megara which was a Spartan ally.  Athens kept control of the Delian League, which was what they called all their allies, and opposed the allies of Sparta. The war  between Sparta and Athens lasted 15 years and Athens contained control over some of Sparta’s allies for a short time. Finally Sparta got sick of Athens and they stormed into Attica which was Athens home land, and demanded Athens give  up their conquered lands.

In the year 466 BC, the thirty year’s peace treaty was signed and Athens and Sparta agreed that each city-state would have its own ally system, and each was not allowed to interfere with a city-state that was not one of these allies. Athens broke the peace treaty when they imposed trade stations at Megara, who was not one of Sparta’s allies anymore, and also fought a side war with Corcya in which Athens had no stake. After this small war, Athens commanded that Corinth tear down their city walls.

Well, Sparta’s assembly agreed that Athens broke the peace treaty, this spawned another war in which Sparta was the aggressor. This war was longer than the first, lasting 17 years. The Athenians were led by Perciles, a naval general who promoted the policy of Athens’s strong navy to ravage Sparta’s coast. This worked for several years and Athens won a battle over Sparta in Naupactus. But in the year 430, a plague struck Athens and killed 30,000 men. This left Athens very weak. When this happened the Athenians could have been subdued but they gathered up their navy and headed back to war. This fleet was lead by Demosthenes and they won a victory in 425. Cleon, leader of Athens came from Athens and helped  finish off any stranded Spartan navy forces. Right as Athens was feeling good, Sparta’s general marched right into Thrace an Athenian colony. This was bad because this was the source of Athens silver trade. Thucydides, Athens general, was exiled after being defeated and wrote history about the war. There was a small peace of 6 years when both Cleon and Brasidas, 2 of Athens generals died. But after the 6 years Athens got the allies of Sparta to go against Sparta in a battle. Sparta again won and gained leadership over all of its allies again. In the 17th year of war the battle ground was moved to Sicily. Athens went to defend its colonies who were being attacked by Sparta’s allies. Sparta came and helped fight against Athens. A little later Sparta won a major naval victory for the first time  and this took control over Athens future.

The city of Athens was having many struggles, as one of their allies turned against them. And the only reason Athens wasn’t completely destroyed was because its foes lacked the initiative and sense of urgency to fight and win.

In the year 404 Athens finally surrendered after many more problems and wars.

Another war broke out and after years of wars and fighting, Persia finally broke in and said they would help Sparta unless Athens made peace. Athens made peace because they were way to weak to fight off Sparta and Persia. That ended the Peloponnesian wars.